Some literarture which may be of help with the immobilization of the ligand.
Takemura, K. - Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR)- and Localized SPR (LSPR)-Based Virus Sensing Systems: Optical Vibration of Nano- and Micro-Metallic Materials for the Development of Next-Generation Virus Detection Technology. Biosensors 11: 250; (2021). Goto reference
The global damage that a widespread viral infection can cause is evident from the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. The importance of virus detection to prevent the spread of viruses has been reaffirmed by the pandemic and the associated social and economic damage. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) in microscale and localized SPR (LSPR) in nanoscale virus sensing systems are thought to be useful as next-generation detection methods. Many studies have been conducted on ultra-sensitive technologies, especially those based on signal amplification. In some cases, it has been reported that even a low viral load can be measured, indicating that the virus can be detected in patients even in the early stages of the viral infection. These findings corroborate that SPR and LSPR are effective in minimizing false-positives and false-negatives that are prevalent in the existing virus detection techniques. In this review, the methods and signal responses of SPR and LSPR-based virus detection technologies are summarized. Furthermore, this review surveys some of the recent developments reported and discusses the limitations of SPR and LSPR-based virus detection as the next-generation detection technologies.
Lim, W. Y., B. L. Lan and N. Ramakrishnan - Emerging Biosensors to Detect Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2): A Review. Biosensors 11: 434; (2021). Goto reference
Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is a global health crisis caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is the gold standard test for diagnosing COVID-19. Although it is highly accurate, this lab test requires highly-trained personnel and the turn-around time is long. Rapid and inexpensive immuno-diagnostic tests (antigen or antibody test) are available, but these point of care (POC) tests are not as accurate as the RT-PCR test. Biosensors are promising alternatives to these rapid POC tests. Here we review three types of recently developed biosensors for SARS-CoV-2 detection: surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-based, electrochemical and field-effect transistor (FET)-based biosensors. We explain the sensing principles and discuss the advantages and limitations of these sensors. The accuracies of these sensors need to be improved before they could be translated into POC devices for commercial use. We suggest potential biorecognition elements with highly selective target-analyte binding that could be explored to increase the true negative detection rate. To increase the true positive detection rate, we suggest two-dimensional materials and nanomaterials that could be used to modify the sensor surface to increase the sensitivity of the sensor.